What is HTML? (Hypertext Markup Language)

- It is a logical set of codes that constitues the appearance of a web document and the information contained. The codes are written in "<" (open bracket) and ">" (closed bracket), although they are not really brackets, that is what they are called and look like: < >.

<BODY> or <DIV>
- Most elements (also named tags) have an element (tag) for opening and a closing element distinguished by "/" inside the open bracket "<".
<DIV> ... </DIV>
- The first word that appears inside the "<" is called element or HTML label and tells the browser what item to create; something like <DIV> (a block element).
- The words follow after that element inside "< >"are named attributes they describe the element's properties. Such as color, size, etc.
- Attributes are separated by spaces and followed by an equal sign "=", after which the attribute's values are written into quotes (" ").
- Thus, a HTML label may contain the identifier, attributes and values.
- In the following example DIV is the element, style is the attribute and "color;blue;" is the value:
<DIV style="color:blue;">This text will be blue</DIV>

HTML Document Structure

- A HTML document (file) consists of several elements and their attributes.
- At first a HTML element contains (surrounds ) the document's data. This element contains two main sub-elements HEAD and BODY. In HEAD you can add the webpage's title and other elements known as metatags, and also JavaScript scripts and CSS styles. In BODY you add the document's content which will be displayed on the webpage.

    <title>Document Title</title>
    Webpage content

The overall structure of a HTML document

    <HEAD> This one also has multiple sub-elements:
        <TITLE> Here write the title of the document, as suggestive as possible, and end it with </TITLE>
        <BASE> Can be used to record the location of the document in URL form. (Required if the document is not accessed in its original location). Ends with </BASE>
        <LINK> Indicates a relationship between the document and other objects on the WEB. Ends with </LINK>
        <META>  Here you write information such as the keypad (language) used, description and keywords that can be found by search engines. Ends with </META>
        <SCRIPT> Contains any JavaScript or VB script. Ends with </SCRIPT>
        <STYLE> Contains information about style, graphic on the content that will appear on the webpage. Ends with </STYLE>
    This is where the elements added in HEAD end
    <BODY> HTML labels and content of the document that are to be displayed on the website are included in this element. You can also add here elements such as: <SCRIPT> </SCRIPT>
Ends with

Daily Test with Code Example

Which attribute is used in <a> tag for the address of the link?
src href rel
<a href="http://coursesweb.net/" title="CoursesWeb.net">CoursesWeb.net</a>
Which CSS property sets the type of the text font?
font-family text-decoration font-size
h2 {
What instruction selects all the <div> tags with class="cls"?
querySelector("div.cls") getElementsByTagName("div") querySelectorAll("div.cls")
var elm_list = document.querySelectorAll("div.cls");
var nr_elms = elm_list.length;       // number of selected items
Indicate the function that can be used to get the sum of values in an array.
array_sum() array_diff() array_shift()
$arr = array(1, 2, 3, 4);
$arr_sum = array_sum($arr);
echo $arr_sum;       // 10
Basic HTML elements

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