Final classes

Inheritance allows for enormous flexibility within a class hierarchy. You can create subclasses to extend the functionality of a base class, but PHP OOP gives the posibility to create classes that cannot be extended. Such a class is called final class.
A final class is declared by adding the final keyword before the class word.
  - For example:
// base class (declared final)
final class Base {
  // ... PHP code

// define a child class derivated from Base
class BaseChild extends Base {
  // ... PHP instructions
Running this code will generate the following error:
Fatal error: Class BaseChild may not inherit from final class (Base) in ...

Final methods

A normal method (public or protected) can be overridden in the child class. If you want a method to remain fixed and unchanging, prefix the definition with the final keyword.
A final method cannot be overridden.
  - For example:
// base class
class Base {
  // final method
  final public function testMethod() {
    echo 'This is a final method';

// define a child class derivated from Base
class BaseChild extends Base {
  // override the testMethod()
  public function testMethod() {
    echo 'Another text';
This example will generate the following error:
Fatal error: Cannot override final method Base::testMethod() in ...

By declaring a class or method final, you limit the flexibility given by inheritance, so, use final with care.

Daily Test with Code Example

Which tag is used to add lists into <ul> and <ol> elements?
<dt> <dd> <li>
Which value of the "display" property creates a block box for the content and ads a bullet marker?
block list-item inline-block
.some_class {
  display: list-item;
Which instruction converts a JavaScript object into a JSON string.
JSON.parse() JSON.stringify eval()
var obj = {
 "courses": ["php", "javascript", "ajax"]
var jsonstr = JSON.stringify(obj);
alert(jsonstr);    // {"courses":["php","javascript","ajax"]}
Indicate the PHP class used to work with HTML and XML content in PHP.
stdClass PDO DOMDocument
$strhtml = '<body><div id="dv1"></div></body>';
$dochtml = new DOMDocument();
$elm = $dochtml->getElementById("dv1");
echo $elm->nodeValue;    //
PHP OOP - Final Classes and Methods

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