querySelector() and querySelectorAll() are two JavaScript functions very useful when working with HTML elements and JavaScript.
With these functions you can get in JavaScript the HTML elements according to a group of CSS selectors ('id', 'class').


querySelector() returns the first element within the document that matches the specified group of selectors, or null if no matches are found.
var elm = document.querySelector('selectors');
- 'selectors' is a string containing one or more CSS selectors separated by commas.
- elm is an element object.

Example, the code below displays the content of the first LI with class='aclass'.
<h4>Example querySelector()</h4>
 <li class='aclass'>CoursesWeb.net</li>
 <li class='aclass'>GamV.eu</li>
<p style='background:#fbfbb0;'>If you click the following button (accessed with querySelector), it displays at #resp the content of the first LI with class='aclass'.</p>
<button id='btn1'>Click</button>
<blockquote id='resp'>#resp</blockquote>

var btn = document.querySelector('#btn1');
btn.addEventListener('click', (ev)=>{
 document.getElementById('resp').innerHTML = document.querySelector('li.aclass').innerHTML;


querySelectorAll() returns an array of objects with the elements that match the specified group of selectors.
var elms = document.querySelectorAll('selectors');
- 'selectors' is a string containing one or more CSS selectors separated by commas.
- elms is an array with the selected HTML elements.

Example, gets an Array with the content of LI tags with class='sites', and the tags with class='note' within element with id='dv1', then it displays their content:
<h4>Example querySelectorAll()</h4>
 <li class='sites'>CoursesWeb.net</li>
 <li class='sites'>MarPlo.net</li>
<div id='dv1'>
 Web Development courses - <span class='note'>querySelector and querySelectorAll</span>
<p style='background:#fbfbb0;'>The JS script gets an array with the LI tags with class='sites' and the tag with class='note' from #dv1 (css selector: '<b>li.sites, #dv1 .note</b>' ).<br>
If you click the button, it displays their content at #resp.</p>
<button id='btn1'>Click</button>
<blockquote id='resp'>#resp</blockquote>

// gets all the LI tags with class='sites', and the tags with class='note' in element with id='dv1'
var elms = document.querySelectorAll('li.sites, #dv1 .note');
var btn = document.querySelector('#btn1');
btn.addEventListener('click', (ev)=>{
 var re ='';

//traverse the elms array, and adds in re the content of each element
 for(var i=0; i<elms.length; i++) {
 re += elms[i].innerHTML +'<br>';

 //adds the string in #resp
 document.getElementById('resp').innerHTML = re;

The difference between querySelector() and querySelectorAll() is that querySelector() returns a single object with the first HTML element that matches the 'selectors', but querySelectorAll() returns an array of objects with all the HTML elements that match the 'selectors'.

• To limit the search to descendants of an element only, you can call the selectors API on the specific element of interest.


- Here's another example with querySelectorAll(), the selection is made on other element, not on 'document'. When the mouse cursor is over a selected <a>, the URL address is added into a specified input field.
<p style='background:#fbfbb0;'>The JS script apply querySelectorAll() to gets the elements within the tag with id 'sites'.<br>
 - When the mouse is over the next links, the address from 'href' it is added in the text field.</p>
Adresa URL: <input type='text' id='txt1' />
<ul id='sites'>
 <li><a href='//coursesweb.net/javascript' title='JavaScript Course'>JavaScript Course</a></li>
 <li><a href='//gamv.eu/' title='Flash Games'>Flash Games</a></li>

var txt1 = document.getElementById('txt1');

// gets A tags in LI added in element with id='idata'
var elms = document.getElementById('sites').querySelectorAll('li a');

//registers mouseenter to each element in elms array
for(var i=0; i<elms.length; i++){
 elms[i].addEventListener('mouseenter', (ev)=>{
 txt1.value = ev.target.href;

Daily Test with Code Example

Which tag is used to add lists into <ul> and <ol> elements?
<dt> <dd> <li>
Which value of the "display" property creates a block box for the content and ads a bullet marker?
block list-item inline-block
.some_class {
  display: list-item;
Which instruction converts a JavaScript object into a JSON string.
JSON.parse() JSON.stringify eval()
var obj = {
 "courses": ["php", "javascript", "ajax"]
var jsonstr = JSON.stringify(obj);
alert(jsonstr);    // {"courses":["php","javascript","ajax"]}
Indicate the PHP class used to work with HTML and XML content in PHP.
stdClass PDO DOMDocument
$strhtml = '<body><div id="dv1">CoursesWeb.net</div></body>';
$dochtml = new DOMDocument();
$elm = $dochtml->getElementById("dv1");
echo $elm->nodeValue;    // CoursesWeb.net
querySelector and querySelectorAll

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