Final classes

Inheritance allows for enormous flexibility within a class hierarchy. You can create subclasses to extend the functionality of a base class, but PHP OOP gives the posibility to create classes that cannot be extended. Such a class is called final class.
A final class is declared by adding the final keyword before the class word.
  - For example:
// base class (declared final)
final class Base {
  // ... PHP code

// define a child class derivated from Base
class BaseChild extends Base {
  // ... PHP instructions
Running this code will generate the following error:
Fatal error: Class BaseChild may not inherit from final class (Base) in ...

Final methods

A normal method (public or protected) can be overridden in the child class. If you want a method to remain fixed and unchanging, prefix the definition with the final keyword.
A final method cannot be overridden.
  - For example:
// base class
class Base {
  // final method
  final public function testMethod() {
    echo 'This is a final method';

// define a child class derivated from Base
class BaseChild extends Base {
  // override the testMethod()
  public function testMethod() {
    echo 'Another text';
This example will generate the following error:
Fatal error: Cannot override final method Base::testMethod() in ...

By declaring a class or method final, you limit the flexibility given by inheritance, so, use final with care.

Daily Test with Code Example

Which tag is a block element?
<div> <img> <span>
<div>Web Programming and Development</div>
Which CSS code displays the text underlined?
font-style: italic; text-decoration: underline; font-weight: 500;
h2 {
  text-decoration: underline;
Click on the JavaScript function that can access other function after a specified time.
insertBefore() setTimeout() querySelector()
function someFunction() { alert(""); }
setTimeout("someFunction()", 2000);
Click on the instruction that returns the number of items of a multidimensional array in PHP.
count($array) count($array, 1) strlen()
$food = array("fruits" => array("banana", "apple"), "veggie" => array("collard", "pea"));
$nr_food = count($food, 1);
echo $nr_food;       // 6
PHP OOP - Final Classes and Methods

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