The for() is a repetitive instruction. It is used when you wish to perform a command, or a block of code several times.
In PHP there are two different types of for loops: for() and foreach().

For loop

The for loop is used when you know how many times the script should run.
  - Syntax:
for (init; condition; increment) {
  // php instructions
init - is used to set a variable as a counter (but can be any code to be executed once at the beginning of the loop).
condition - is evaluated for each loop iteration. If it evaluates to TRUE, the loop continues and executes its PHP instructions. If it evaluates to FALSE, the loop ends.
increment - is used to increment (or decrement) a counter (but can be any code to be executed at the end of each loop iteration).
  - Example:
for ($i=0; $i<5; $i++) {
  echo '<br/> The counter is: '. $i;
The first time this loop is run, the $i variable (the counter) is set to the value of 0, ($i=0). Then the condition $i<5 checks to determine whether the code loop should be executed (when the condition is True).
After each execution of the code loop, the statement $i++ is run. This expresion defines how the testing variable (the counter) should be altered at the end of each iteration (here "$i++" increments the value of "$i" by 1). Then the condition is checked, and so forth.
This process continues until the condition is False ($i=5).
This script will display the following result:
The counter is: 0
The counter is: 1
The counter is: 2
The counter is: 3
The counter is: 4

Inside the for instruction you can introduce other "for()" or any conditional statements.

Foreach loop

The foreach loop is used to iterate through every element in Arrays. It has two syntaxes:
  1) - Syntax, to access every array element:
foreach ($array as $value) {
  // Do something with $value.
The foreach() loop will iterate through every element in $array, assigning the value of each element to the $value variable.

  2) - Syntax, to access both the keys and values:
foreach ($array as $key => $val) {
  // Do something with $key and /or $val.
This construct will place the key and value of the current $array element into their own variables: $key and $val.

  - Example:
$arr = array('n1'=>'one', 'n2'=>'two', 'n3'=>'three');
foreach ($arr as $key => $val) {
  echo "<br /> The value at $key is $val";
For every loop iteration, the key and value of the current $arr array element are assigned to $key and $val variables (and the array pointer is moved by one). On the next loop iteration, the "foreach" will be looking at the next array element, and so forth till the last element of the $arr array.
The value at n1 is one
The value at n2 is two
The value at n3 is three

You can learn about Arrays in the next lesson.

End the For loops with the break instruction

If you want to end a "for" (or "foreach") loop before the condition is False, you can use the break instruction after a conditional "if" inside the loop (break ends execution of the current loop or switch structure).
  - Syntax:
for (init; condition; increment) {
  if(end_condition) break;
  // code to be executed
If the end_condition is True, the code after the "break" will not be executed at all, and the execution of "for" loop ends.
  - Example:
for ($i=0; $i<5; $i++) {
  if ($i==2) break;
  echo '<br/> The counter is: '. $i;
- Output:
The counter is: 0
The counter is: 1
- As you can see, eaven the condition ($i<5) is True, the loop ends when $i==2.

Daily Test with Code Example

Which tag adds a new line into a paragraph?
<b> <br> <p>
First line ...<br>
Other line...
Which CSS property can be used to add space between letters?
text-size word-spacing letter-spacing
#id {
  letter-spacing: 2px;
What JavaScript function can be used to get access to HTML element with a specified ID?
getElementById() getElementsByTagName() createElement()
var elm = document.getElementById("theID");
var content = elm.innerHTML;
Click on the "echo" correct instruction.
echo "" echo ""; echo """;
echo "Address URL:";
For and Foreach Loops

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